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Shell Scripting Online Training



it is a command line interpreter. The shell access request from use and the checks command existence, if the command exist then it converts into kernel understandable language (machine language) and it send the given request to kernel the shell access interface b/w user and kernel

Kernel:- kernel is nothing but the bundle of software that makes an o/s for making coordination possible b/w user and hardware.(Online Training Materials are offering the best SHELL SCRIPTING real time training)

It  is a group of hundreds of system calls.

System call means low level programming

Each & every system call written in 'c' language

Ex;- open( ), fork ( ), copy( ), proc( ), kill( ), create .............. etc.

Jobs of kernel:-             file management

                              Memory management

                              Process management

                              Device management




UNIX is multi user o/s

Windows is a multi user - o/s

UNIX is multi tasking o/s

Windows is also multi tasking o/s.

To boot the   UNIX o/s. 2 MB ram is enough

To boot the UNIX o/s 12 MB ram is required

UNIX is process based concept

Thread based concept

In UNIX any user process is killed it will not effect the other

It effect to all

Can run more than 1,00,000 transactions per minute

80,000 per minute

There is no limit for number of users working with the server

Limited users

UNIX is an open system

Closed system


UNIX FILE SYSTEM:- file system is a mechanism used in the o/s environment for storing the data  in a systematically order into a storage device. It is the way of storing and retrieving the files and directory's into the secondary storage devices.

Types of file systems are :-     disk based

                                                      Network based

                                                      Virtual based                               

Disk based file systems:-        a disk file system is a file system designed for the storage of files on a data storage device, most commonly a disk drive, which might be directly (or) indirectly commonly a disk drive, which might be directly ( or) indirectly connected to the computer.

Ex;-                                   WINDOWS                                                               UNIX

                              FAT                                                                             EXT2

                              FAT32                                                                                    EXT3

                              NTFS                                                                          UDF

Network based file systems:- for  sharing any resource from one pc into a network we require net work base file system. Ex.- NFS, DFS, SMB protocols, FTP

Virtual based file systems;- For improving the system performance we can go for virtual based file system. EX:- SWAP, RAMSFS

File system hierarchy:-   

directory from where the entire file system is going to start. It can also be called as top level working directory.

/root: this is the default workspace allocated for the privilege user.                                          

Ex:- super user:

*root... root

/home; this is the default work space allocated for non-privilege user

Ex:- normal user:

Raju ................ /home /raju

/Boot:   all the bootable files, boot loader information and kernel information can be formed under /boot directory.

Ex:- /boot/ grob / graob .conf

/bin:  it maintains alluser executable commands.

Ex: f disk

      User add

/ user :  it means UNIX system resources it contains, the programs and applications which are available for both normal user & administrator

Ex:- man pages

/var: - the variable date that keeps on changing like log files, mail accounts, and print spool can be found under / var.,

/dev:- the entire device which are connected to the machine are store under  /dev directory. Every device in linux and unix is treated as a file

Ex:- /dev/sda

/opt:- in this directory we can install only the third  party applications.

Like           open office

      Webb in


/etc:- it contains all configuration files

Ex:- /etc/ exports

/etc/ hosts

/mnt:- it is mount point provided for removable media. Such as floppy

Drive, CD, DVD, RAM Disk etc.

/tmp: - this directory contains temporary files used by the system

/lib: - it consist library files. Which are needed by number of different

Applications as well as linux kernel (shell scripting online training was provided by Online Training materials)

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